On This Day- 25 May1895  Sentence is passed on Oscar Wilde

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It took three trials to send Oscar Wilde to jail. He wasn’t even in the dock himself for the first one, but he might as well have been.

In the summer of 1891 Wilde, then thirty-eight years old, met, and fell in love with the twenty-two year Lord Alfred Douglas, an aspiring poet, known to have had a string of homosexual affairs while at university. Wilde showered the young man with gifts and affectionate letters. The first ‘wrinkle’ in the relationship came when Douglas gave away an old jacket, containing some of the letters, to a friend, down on his luck. They had to be bought back at a high price.

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Then there was the matter of Douglas’s father, John Sholto Douglas, Eighth Marquess of Queensberry, one of the most malevolent and repulsive figures in late Victorian Britain, celebrated for devising a set of boxing rules that he had very little to do with. Queensberry was like a super-charged version of the Robert de Niro character in the Meet the Fockersmovie franchise.  He wasn’t very good at spelling either, on 18 February 1895, after having failed to disrupt the opening night of The Importance of Being Earnest, he showed up at Wilde’s London club and left a note, which read ‘To Oscar Wilde, posing as a so[m]domite’. But, he spoiled the effect somewhat by spelling sodomite incorrectly.

Wilde, against the advice of friends like George Bernard Shaw and Frank Harris, and with the encouragement of Alfred Douglas, known to one and all as ‘Bosie’, sued Queensberry for libel. The eminent barrister Edward Clarke, only agreed to take the case after Wilde assured him ‘on his word as an Englishman’ that he was not guilty of the offence of sodomy or of ‘gross indecency’. The latter had been made illegal in the 1895 Criminal Amendment Act. Wilde gave his word, but must have been exercising some form of Jesuitical ‘mental reservation’ because, of course, he wasn’t an Englishman.

Famously, his former Trinity College, Dublin rival, Edward Carson, eviscerated Wilde in the witness box, most notably when asking the playwright had he ever kissed a man named Walter Grainger. Wilde denied the charge. He should have left it there, but, ill-advisedly, added that, ‘He was a peculiarly plain boy’, by way of explanation for his failure to snog the lad. Before Carson could parade a slew of defence witnesses, all prepared to testify to having had homosexual relations with Wilde, Edward Clarke withdrew the libel charge against Queensberry.

The poet’s close friends now advised him immediately to take the next train to Paris. He even got judicial help. When the police had approached a London magistrate for a warrant to arrest the playwright, the magistrate, John Bridge, had delayed acceding to the request for long enough to allow Wilde to escape the country. But, he dallied too long. He was arrested and charged with twenty-five counts of ‘gross indecency’. In the dock with him was his alleged procurer, Alfred Taylor. The most notable moment in the first criminal trial was when Wilde was asked what Douglas had meant in a letter, when he described their relationship as a ‘love that dare not speak its name’. Wilde suggested, disingenuously, that Douglas had been referring to the Platonic affection of an older man for a younger one. Clarke’s closing statement was a work of genius, and was probably sufficient to ensure that the first trial resulted in a ‘hung jury’.

After that even Wilde’s former tormentor, Edward Carson, suggested that the Liberal government of Lord Rosebery, should ‘ease up on this fellow now’. But the authorities were especially zealous in pursuit of Wilde. The reason, other than to reinforce the message of the 1895 Criminal Law Amendment Act, and make an example of such a high profile figure, may reside in the obsessive and fanatical person of Queensberry, and the alleged vulnerability of the Prime Minister. Rosebery, while Foreign Minister under William Gladstone appears, himself, to have had an affair with a Douglas, Bosie’s brother Francis. After the suspected suicide of Francis Douglas a cache of incriminating letters was said to have emerged, and these were allegedly used by Queensberry to blackmail the Prime Minister into continuing the pursuit of Wilde through the criminal courts.

At the second criminal trial the prosecution ran a tighter ship, dropping some of the more dubious witnesses against Wilde. The strategy was successful, and this time Wilde was convicted and sentenced to two years hard labour. His conviction unleashed a lengthy period of official and societal reaction against homosexuality, a criminal offence that had often been tolerated prior to the trials of Oscar Wilde.

Sentence was passed in the criminal trial of Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde one hundred and twenty-three years ago, on this day.

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ON THIS DAY, 8 NOVEMBER 1847 – The Birth of Bram Stoker

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While he was the author in 1879 of that truly fascinating page-turner The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland – the definitive work on the subject – posterity has chosen to recognize Bram Stoker for his fiction based on an obscure Transylvanian tyrant Vlad Dracul.

Stoker, born Abraham Stoker in Clontarf in 1847, was theatre critic for the unionist Dublin Evening Mail in his 20s. A favourable review of a Dublin production of Henry Irving’s Hamlet led to a meeting between the two men in 1876. The rest was history. Irving was taken with the young Dubliner. Stoker would become his personal assistant and eventually run the Lyceum theatre in London for the famous actor-manager. Stoker also became Irving’s biographer and called his only child after him.

Stoker, who was distantly related to Arthur Conan Doyle, also had an interesting relationship with Oscar Wilde. He had proposed the future playwright for membership of the Trinity College Philosophical Society when he was president. Later they both wooed the same woman, the aspiring actress Florence Balcombe. Wisely, she chose Stoker. After Wilde’s fall from grace in the wake of his infamous libel action against the Marquis of Queensberry and his jail term for sodomy and gross indecency, Stoker stood by him and visited Wilde in his final years on the continent.

Notwithstanding his momentous early triumph with the publication of The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland  it is for his fiction that Stoker will be remembered. In addition to Dracula, published in 1897, Stoker also had considerable success with works like The Lady of the Shroud in 1909 and The Lair of the White Worm in 1911. In all he wrote 18 novels before his death in 1912 at the age of 64.

It appears that his most famous work might well have gone by a different title but for a last minute change of mind. The original manuscript for Dracula was lost and didn’t turn up until the 1980s. While the manuscript was typed the title page was handwritten with the words ‘The Undead’.

Bram Stoker, creator of the most famous gothic horror novel of them all (with the greatest of respect to Mary Shelley), was born in Clontarf on the northside of Dublin, 166 years ago on this day.

On this day – 8 November 1847 – Birth of Bram Stoker

http://www.bramstoker.org

On this day – 26 April, 1895 The Trial of Oscar Wilde

 

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On this day – 26 April, 1895

 

 

He once said, via one of his characters, that ‘there is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about.’ While it might have been judicious in Chapter 1 of The Picture of Dorian Grey by April 1895 the epigram had a hollow ring as its author, Irish aesthete, dramatist and wit, Oscar Wilde was being spoken about widely, for all the wrong reasons.

In the same volume he had written that, ‘destiny does not send us heralds. She is too wise or too cruel for that.’ That certainly proved to be the case for Wilde whose life unravelled rapidly and unexpectedly after the Marquis of Queensberry, the father of his petulant and reckless lover Lord Alfred Douglas, left a calling card at Wilde’s London club addressed to ‘Oscar Wilde, posing sodomite’. Queensberry, best known for having codified the rules of boxing, was removing his gloves in so doing. Because sodomy was a criminal offence he was leaving himself open to a suit for criminal libel and a two year jail sentence. The note was the culmination of a series of confrontations between the Marquess, his son and the celebrated playwright. Most of Wilde’s friends urged him to let the matter lie and ignore the provocation. Douglas, nicknamed ‘Bosie’ advised otherwise. He encouraged his lover to sue his father. Wilde decided to ignore wiser counsels and indulge Douglas in an ongoing vendetta with his truculent parent. It would prove his undoing.

Queensberry played by his own rules in assembling his case against Wilde. These included the hiring of private detectives to delve into his private life and the hiring of the distinguished barrister Edward Carson, like Wilde a Dubliner and a former Trinity College student, to defend the Marquess against the defamation charge.

The cross examination of Wilde was a Carsonian tour de force he was pummelled, poked, prodded and provoked. He allowed Wilde to hang himself by appearing flippant in response to serious and potentially damaging questions.   He extracted an admission from the plaintiff that he had lied about his age on oath and a denial that he had kissed a particular servant boy because ‘he was a particularly plain boy – unfortunately ugly.’  The defence case never had to proceed any further than Carson’s opening statement in which he revealed that Queensberry’s detectives had located a number of young men who were prepared to testify to having had sex with Wilde. The playwright dropped the prosecution, Queensberry was acquitted, Wilde was left with his antagonists costs and went bankrupt.

On this day, 26 April 1895, Wilde’s own prosecution for gross indecency under the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885, began. It arose directly from the Queensberry case and would end with a conviction, and a sentence of two years hard labour.  As Wilde put it himself in Dorian Grey, ‘behind every exquisite thing that existed, there was something tragic.’